Oral cancer is a deadly disease affecting worldwide. Despite developments of conventional cancer therapy, there has been little improvement in the survival rates. This culminated in the evolution of a targeted. New Drug Delivery System, discovering novel objectives for successful drug delivery and synergistic combination of anticancer agents to minimize side effects.
The main focus was on understanding the various aspects of different targeted drug delivery vehicles used in the treatment of oral cancer including advantages, disadvantages, and future perspectives.
Materials and Methods:
A literature search was accomplished from 2005 to 2020 via Google scholar. PubMed, EBSCO, Embase, and Scopus databases along with Clinical trials registries using the terms oral buccal thin films, Hyperthermia and Thermoablation, Intra-tumoral, Photodynamic, Immunotherapy, photothermal, and ultrasound therapy in oral cancer. The articles were scrutinized and those which were not relevant to our search were omitted. Clinical trials on targeted drug delivery systems for Oral Cancer being conducted or completed around the world from various registries of clinical trials have also been searched out and the findings were tabulated in the end. The PRISMA 2020 guidelines were followed.
The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mostly depends upon the location, type, and stage of the tumor. Vivid targeted drug delivery systems are being used in the therapeutic interventions of oral cancer as they aim for specific target site delivery and are the most appropriate treatment. Active Pharmacological Ingredient (API) is taken to the targeting site, sparing non-target organs or cells, triggering selective and efficient localization, thereby maximizing the therapeutic index with minimizing toxicity. The successful targeted drug delivery system works on four principles i.e. Retain, Evade, Target and Release, which means loading of sufficient drug into a suitable drug carrier, does not affect body secretions, long duration in circulation, reaching the targeted site and, drug release within the time for effective functioning of the drug. All techniques described in this paper have proven to show effective results.
Oral Cancer is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Various conventional therapies are used for treating oral cancer, but they enclose variable degrees of side effects both on the body as well as the cellular microenvironment. With advanced technology, many other aids have been introduced in the field of oncology to treat oral cancer with minimal side effects. All techniques described in this paper have proven to show effective results in the therapeutic interventions of oral cancer. Moreover, they can be used even in combination with conventional drug therapy to show beneficial outcomes. Several clinical trials are being conducted and completed in this aspect to investigate definite results of these therapies, yet robust research is needed for further confirmation.
Keywords: Immunotherapy, Oral cancer, Oral thin films, Photodynamic, Targeted drug delivery, Diseases.