Dentinal Tubule Disinfection with Propolis & Two Extracts of Azadirachta indica Against Candida albicans Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate

Dakshita Joy Sinha1, Paridhi Garg1, *, Anurag Verma2, Vibha Malik3, Edgar Richard Maccune3, Agrima Vasudeva1
1 Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Kothiwal Dental College & Research Centre, Moradabad (U.P.)- 244001, India
2 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, India;
3 Dr. Vibha Pathlabs, Moradabad, India

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© Sinha et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Kothiwal Dental College & Research Centre, Moradabad (U.P.)- 244001, India; Tel: 9997052495; E-mail:



This study evaluates the disinfection of dentinal tubules using Propolis, Azadirachta indica (alcoholic and aqueous extracts), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate.

Materials & Method:

One hundred and five human teeth were infected with Candida albicans for 2 days. Samples were divided into 7 groups. Group I- Propolis, Group II- Alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica, Group III- Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Group IV- 2% Chlorhexidine, Group V- Calcium hydroxide, Group VI- Ethanol and Group VII- Saline (negative control). At the end of 1,3 and 5 days, the antimicrobial efficacy of medicaments against Candida albicans was assessed at the depths of 200 µm and 400 µm.


The overall percentage inhibition of fungal growth (at 200 µm and 400 µm depth) was 99.2% with 2% chlorhexidine gel. There was no statistical difference between propolis, alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) and 2% chlorhexidine.


Propolis and alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica performed equally well as that of 2% Chlorhexidine.

Keywords:: Azadirachta indica, calcium hydroxide, Candida albicans, chlorhexidine, dentinal tubule disinfection, propolis.