Calcium Oxide as a Root Filling Material: a Three-Year Prospective Clinical Outcome Study

Stephen M Koral*
Private practice, 2006 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80302, USA

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© Stephen M. Koral; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Private practice, 2006 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80302, USA; Tel: 303-443-4984; Fax: 303-443-0842; E-mails:;


Calcium oxide, available for decades as a root canal filling material, has been little used in recent years due to its lack of radio-opacity, and an expectation that it would lead to an excess of root fractures. In this study, four general dentists submitted 79 cases of endodontically treated teeth whose roots were filled with either Biocalex 6/9, or Endocal-10, and rendered adequately radio-opaque with yttrium oxide. Fifty-seven teeth were available for follow up at three years. Criteria for success were comfort, function, radiographic signs of healing. The overall success rate was 89%. The percentage of teeth retained in function was 98%; aside from one equivocal case, no teeth were lost due to root fractures. These numbers are indistinguishable from success rates reported for conventional root filling materials. Conclusion: Calcium oxide may be considered as a safe and viable alternative to other current methods of root obturation.

Key Words: Root canal filling, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, endodontic outcomes.