RESEARCH ARTICLE


Characteristics of the Tooth in the Initial Movement: The Influence of the Restraint Site to the Periodontal Ligament and the Alveolar Bone



Kyoko Shinya1, Akikazu Shinya2, *, Rizako Nakahara3, Yuji Nakasone4, Akiyoshi Shinya5
1 Department of Orthodontics, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University. 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 102-8158, Japan
2 Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials Science, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 2, FI-20520 Turku, Finland, and Junior Lecture, Department of Crown and Bridge, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University, 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8159, Japan
3 Department of Orthodontics, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University. 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 102-8158, Japan
4 Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science University of Tokyo. 1-3 Kagurazaka Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan
5 Department of Crown and Bridge, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University. 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8158, Japan


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Creative Commons License
© Shinya et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry & Biomaterial Science, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 2, FI-20520 Turku, Finland; Tel: +358 2 333 81; Fax: +358 2 333 8390; E-mails: akikazu_dds@msn.com and akikazu.shinya@utu.fi


Abstract

It is critical to clarify orthodontic load transfer mechanism from tooth to alveolar bone, and to determine the influence of applied orthodontic force on tooth behaviour. In this study, two dimensional (2-D) finite element (FE) models were constructed to simulate to mechanical behaviour observed during the initial movement of periodontal ligament (PDL) deformation, and to evaluate the effects of the presence of PDL and various restraint sites on tooth behaviour.

A 2-D solid FE model of the tooth-PDL-alveolar bone system was constructed and investigated into stress distribution pattern and displacement. The first analysis was carried out with combinations of FE model with and without PDL. The second analysis was compared with three different sites restraint of alveolar bone.

By incorporating PDL in FE models, excessively large stress values and deformation generated in a tooth and alveolar bone were relieved. Since restraint conditions did not affect a tooth and PDL, but had an effect on alveolar bone, orthodontic force necessary for tooth displacement was transmitted correctly. The results of this study revealed that inclusion of PDL in FE models is indispensable to transmit orthodontic force appropriately when investigating tooth behaviour for orthodontic treatment. Restrained sites affected stress distribution in alveolar bone.