Factors Affecting the Presence or Absence of Interdental Papilla; An in-vivo study. Part II: Influence of Different Parameters on the Presence or Absence of a Black Triangle

The Open Dentistry Journal 30 December 2022 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/18742106-v16-e221215-2022-38



The distance from the crest of the bone to the contact point is crucial to the formation of a black triangle. This study looks into the influence of various clinical parameters on the absence of the interdental papilla.


The aim of this study is to assess the different clinical parameters that can contribute to black triangle formation.


The objective of this study is to determine the significance of various clinical parameters in the formation of black triangles.


Patients included were those referred to the radiology department for periapical radiographs from the second premolars to the second premolars in both jaws. All the patients were clinically examined to assess the parameters investigated. Different Parameters were assessed which included tissue phenotype type, interproximal cleaning, and the presence of inflammation. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 19 and STATA.


It was found that the relative risk of patients who have a thin tissue phenotype is 1.20 times more likely to have a black triangle than patients with a thick tissue phenotype. Lack of interproximal cleaning resulted in 1.46 times more likely to have a black triangle. The presence of gingival inflammation caused1.32 times more likelihood of having a black triangle.


The parameters that had a significant association were tissue phenotype, interproximal cleaning, and gingival inflammation. The amount of inflammation, the cleaning habits, and the tissue phenotype of the patient need to be taken into consideration when planning restorative work and care needs to be taken in the treatment planning, consent, and execution.

Keywords: Dental esthetics, Black triangles, Interdental papilla, Recession, Open embrasure, Treatment outcome.
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