REVIEW ARTICLE


Modifiable and Non-modifiable Risk Factors Affecting Oral and Periodontal Health and Quality of Life in South Asia



Mohmed Isaqali Karobari1, S Siddharthan2, Abdul Habeeb Adil3, Mohammed Mansoor Khan4, Adith Venugopal5, Dinesh Rokaya6, *, Artak Heboyan7, Charu Mohan Marya8, Anand Marya9, 10
1 Conservative Unit, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang 16150 Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Medicine, UniSZA, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
3 Department of Community Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang 16150 Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
4 Consultant Endodontist, Coral Dental Speciality Clinic, Vijayanagar Colony, Hyderabad, 500028, Telangana, India
5 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of dentistry, University of Puthisastra, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
6 Department of Clinical Dentistry, Walailak University International College of Dentistry, Walailak University, Bangkok10400, Thailand
7 Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Stomatology, Yerevan State Medical University after Mkhitar Heratsi, Str. Koryun 2, Yerevan 0025, Armenia
8 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Haryana, India
9 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of dentistry, University of Puthisastra, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
10 Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Science , Saveetha University, Chennai , India


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Karobari et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical Dentistry, Walailak University International College of Dentistry, Walailak University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; E-mail: dineshrokaya115@hotmail.com


Abstract

Objectives:

The study aimed to review the prevalence of periodontal disease and associated factors among developing South Asian countries. The review was also aimed at providing an insight into how such factors play a role in affecting the Quality of life of patients with compromised oral health.

Background:

It has been observed that Oral health directly correlates with the Quality of life of an individual, so it is imperative to understand this, particularly in the developing parts of the world.

Methods:

A MeSH keyword search was carried out with the keywords: Periodontal diseases, Oral Health, Public Health, Asia, QoL, Quality of Life, Southeast Asia, Tobacco, and Risk Factors, and based on the findings, this detailed review was compiled.

Results:

The South Asian population forms 24.89% of the worldpopulation, while periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition that affects 11% of the globe. Several studies previously conducted across developing countries have shown that various factors like the socioeconomic status of an individual, smoking habit, consumption of alcohol, hypertension, history of diabetes, obesity, and stress are indirectly related to the onset of periodontal disease. Characteristics associated with specific populations like ethnicity, behavioral characteristics, and environmental factors may affect causing periodontitis.

Conclusion:

Dental practitioners in this region should consider risk factors that can be altered significantly to uplift the periodontal health status of an individual, which is not being considered in many developing countries.

Keywords: Oral health, Public health, Tobacco, Risk factors, Smoking habit, Periodontal health.