RESEARCH ARTICLE


Combined Effect of Fluoride Mouthwash and Sub-ablative Er:YAG Laser for Prevention of White Spot Lesions around Orthodontic Brackets



Kaveh Ramezani1, Elham Ahmadi2, Ardavan Etemadi3, Mohammad Javad Kharazifard4, Ladan Ranjbar Omrani5, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi6, *
1 Department of Periodontology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Department of Operative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Laser Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 ental Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Associate Professor, Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Department of Operative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6 Professor, Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Ramezani et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Professor, Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; E-mail: ahmadakh@tums.ac.ir


Abstract

Background:

Development of white spot lesions (WSLs) around orthodontic brackets compromises esthetics and necessitates additional dental treatments.

Objectives:

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of fluoride mouthwash combined with Er:YAG laser irradiation for the prevention of WSLs around orthodontic brackets.

Methods:

Orthodontic brackets were bonded to 50 bovine incisors. The entire tooth surface was coated with acid-resistant varnish except for a margin around the brackets. The microhardness of the teeth was measured at the respective area using the Vickers hardness test. The teeth were then randomly divided into five groups (n=10) of control (Gc), Orthokin fluoride mouthwash (Gf), 100 mJ/cm2 Er:YAG laser (Gl), laser + mouthwash (Glf), and mouthwash + laser (Gfl). Then, the teeth underwent pH cycling according to the standard protocol for demineralization. The microhardness of the teeth was measured again, and the percentage of change in microhardness was calculated. The amount of calcium released during pH cycling was quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.

Results:

Calcium release (indicative of demineralization) in the Gf, Gfl, and Glf groups was significantly lower than that in the Gc and Gl groups (P<0.05). The reduction in surface microhardness was also the same in the five groups with no significant difference (P>0.05).

Conclusion:

Fluoride mouthwash combined with Er:YAG laser or Er:YAG laser alone cannot decrease the incidence of WSLs around orthodontic brackets compared to fluoride mouthwash alone.

Keywords: Dental caries, Fluoride, Mouthwashes, Laser therapy, Tooth remineralization, Dental treatments.