Arch Measurement Changes upon Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy for Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Noor Al Mortadi1, *, Basheer Khassawneh2, Lina Khasawneh3, Karem H. Alzoubi4, 5
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2022
E-location ID: e187421062208013
Publisher ID: e187421062208013
Article History:Received Date: 18/1/2022
Revision Received Date: 7/3/2022
Acceptance Date: 25/4/2022
Electronic publication date: 08/11/2022
Collection year: 2022
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep disordered breathing. Patients who arrive at the dental office with a diagnosis of OSA are often treated with a mandibular advancement device (MAD). A biomimetic oral appliance therapy (BOAT) offers an alternative nonsurgical method, which can putatively resolve OSA by combining maxilla-mandibular correction and addressing craniofacial deficiencies.
To determine whether maxilla-mandibular correction changes induced by BOAT produce a more favorable upper airway, which might result in a reduction in the severity of OSA.
Patients who were diagnosed with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, 9 males, 8 females; age, mean (SD): 45.76(10.31), BMI mean (SD): 33.5(13.43), underwent BOAT therapy. Subjects had 2 months of follow-up visits, including examinations for progress and adjustment of the appliances. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) with no appliance in the mouth prior to BOAT and after treatment was recorded. The mid-palatal screw mechanism of the appliance was advanced once per week. The subjects were asked to wear the appliance for 10-12 hours/day and night. Paired T-Test was used to analyze the results.
The BOAT treatment enhanced upper airway function as the total AHI was significantly lower after treatment (P=0.019). Parameters that were significantly improved by the end of the treatment period included total AHI/Per hour of sleep (p=0.019), NREM-AHI (p=0.019), desaturation index (p=0.041), average SpO2 (p=0.088), and average O2 while in non-REM (p=0.043). Measurements of jaw changes were all statistically significant except lower 6-6 and lower 7-7. Additionally, a strong negative correlation between AHI and jaw changes was shown for upper 6-6 (p=-0.52), upper 7-7 (p=-0.48), and lower 3-3 (p=-0.42).
The BOAT provides a useful form of therapy for the resolve of OSA. This study suggests that BOATS may be able to reduce the AHI to within normal limits. Still, long-term follow-up is needed to determine whether these subjects need a maintenance program to retain their initial upper airway improvement.