Dental Arch Changes with Two Different Trans-Palatal Arch

Ludovica Nucci1, Rossana Patricia Rotolo1, Teresa Pellegrino1, Martina Menichelli1, Letizia Perillo1, Fabrizia Apuzzo1, Vincenzo Grassia1, *
1 Multidisciplinary Department of Medical Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Caserta, Italy

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 447
Abstract HTML Views: 178
PDF Downloads: 91
ePub Downloads: 43
Total Views/Downloads: 759
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 269
Abstract HTML Views: 105
PDF Downloads: 63
ePub Downloads: 26
Total Views/Downloads: 463

Creative Commons License
© 2022 Ludovica et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Multidisciplinary Department of Medical Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Caserta, Italy; E-mail:



Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is a dentofacial orthopedic treatment often used to treat patients with narrow palate and transverse maxillary growth deficiency.


This treatment leads to correction of posterior dental crossbites, coordination of the upper and lower arches and gaining arch perimeter in patients with tooth size/arch size discrepancies. To stabilize the results obtained with RME and to limit or avoid the relapse, the use of Transpalatal Arch (TPA) would be recommended.


The aim of this study is to evaluate short-term maxillary changes in patients treated with RME followed by TPA with and without palatal arms.

Materials and Methods:

30 patients, 16 females and 14 males (mean age of 9.7 yrs ranging between 9 and 12), were treated by expansion with palatal Hyrax-type expander. After this period, it was removed and one of the two different types of TPA was used.

The two different TPA were a 0.036-inch stainless steel wire with a loop directed mesially in the middle, one maintained the original design (TPA), the second one presented arms extended to canines (TPAa). Dental casts were collected for each patient for each treatment step; before (T0), after expansion (T1) and after TPA or TPAa (T2). To assess differences in dental arches after the two treatment phases, three-dimensional (3D) dental casts were used to make more predictable measurements compared with caliper measurements that presented intra-examiner and inter-examiner measurements errors.


In TPAa group, differences between the value at the end of the retention period and at the end of expansion showed no statistical significance. Instead in TPA group, the same measurements suggested a reduction of value in almost all dental transverse diameters. Statistically significant differences in dental measurements were found between TPAa and TPA.


Results confirm the hypothesis that TPAa can allow to better maintain dental transverse dimensions.

Keywords: Transpalatal arch, Maxillary expansion, Arch perimeter, Palatal expansion, Arch stability, Arch length.