Facial Esthetic Analysis of Nepalese Subjects

Pravin K. Shah1, Situ Shrestha2, Dinesh Rokaya3, *
1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Dent Care Plaza, Kathmandu, Nepal
2 Department of Dentistry, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Science, Kathmandu, Nepal
3 Department of Clinical Dentistry, Walailak University International College of Dentistry, Walailak University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Shah et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical Dentistry, Walailak University International College of Dentistry, Walailak University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; Tel: +66-22980244; E-mail:



Facial beauty is a prime concern in facial esthetic treatments and facial plastic surgery. The cephalometric can be used in the diagnosis, treatment planning, assessing the growth pattern in the craniofacial complex and skeletal disproportion with the relationships of the teeth to their supporting bone.


The objective of this research was to analyze the face, evaluate the variability between males and females, and determine the cephalometric norms of Nepalese subjects based on Ricketts analysis.

Materials and Methods:

Craniofacial analysis of 106 Nepalese Brahmins subjects (60 females and 46 males) was done using the lateral cephalogram. The samples were criteria selected who met the criteria; well-balanced face, class I canine relation, and class I molar relation with normal occlusion. Ten parameters of Ricketts analysis were measured and analyzed using SPSS 20. The results were compared among males and females using Independent T-test with P value = 0.05.


The mean values of the facial axis, mandibular plane angle, mandibular arc, convexity at A were higher among the Brahmin females compared to Brahmin males. While the mean values of lower facial height, lower incisor to A Pog distance, lower incisor to A Pog angle, upper molar to PTV, and distance from lower lip to E plane were higher among the Brahmin males compared to Brahmin females. Female had smaller craniofacial variables compared to males. The mean values of upper molar position are higher for both males and females compared to the standard value of 12 ±3 mm; however, the mean values are significantly higher among males compared to females (P = 0.001). It showed that the facial axis, chin position, lower facial height, and facial depth were no significant differences between Nepalese males and females.


There was sexual dimorphism in craniofacial features in Nepalese Brahmins. Female had smaller craniofacial variables compared to males. This research provided an overview of craniofacial features and they can be a norm for Nepalese Brahmins in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

Keywords: Esthetics, Facial, Ricketts analysis, Cephalometrics, Nepalese, Brahmins.