The retromolar canal is a structure rarely identified in clinical practice. The content of this canal is composed of nerves, arteries and venous plexus that give innervation and irrigation to the third molar region and the vestibular mucosa of molars and lower premolars. Thus, knowledge of the presence of this structure is important in dental procedures, due to the complications that damage to this structure can cause.
In this report, a 19-year-old patient sought dental care at a clinic, Dentistry course at the Federal University of Santa Maria for the extraction of third molars due to hygiene difficulties. On radiographic examination, a retromolar canal was identified at the distal of the left mandibular third molar. With the identification of this structure, preventive measures were performed during the procedure to avoid complications.
With adequate planning and prevention measures, the trans and postoperative periods occurred without any complications.
The foramen and the retromolar canal may occasionally appear in the clinic radiographic routine of the Dentist, and the professional should be attentive to the management of these anatomical structures during surgical procedures to avoid accidents and complications.
Keywords: Retromolar canal, Retromolar foramen, Third molar, Surgical injuries, Oral surgery, Case report.