SYSTEMATIC REVIEW


Use of Lip Protecting Agents in the Prevention of Actinic Cheilitis, Herpes Labialis and Cancer of Lip: A Systematic Review



So Hyun Moon1, Amolak Sangha1, Malavika Ravichandran1, Amy Vicki Samuela1, Stephanie Tso1, Dileep Sharma1, 2, *, Anura Ariyawardana1
1 College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia
2 Australian Institute of Tropical Health & Medicine, Cairns, Australia


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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Moon et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia; Tel: 0410462827; E-mail: dileep.sharma@jcu.edu.au


Abstract

Background:

Actinic cheilitis, herpes labialis and lip cancer are relatively common conditions presenting on the lips associated with exposure to periods of sun exposure and thereby ultraviolet radiation.

Objective:

This systematic review aimed to determine the efficacy of the application of sunscreen-containing lip-protecting agents (LPA) in the prevention of actinic cheilitis (AC), recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and lip cancer (LC).

Methods:

This review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and registered with the PROSPERO database. A literature search was conducted using SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Medline (Ovid), Pubmed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library databases and manual search using search terms actinic cheilitis (AC), recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and lip cancer (LC) along with lip protecting agents and their variations as keywords. A total of 1,567 papers were yielded. Of them, nine studies were eligible for qualitative data synthesis.

Results:

Nine articles (3 AC, 5 RHL, 1 LC) were deemed eligible and thus selected for qualitative synthesis. Three studies on AC identified approximately 21.7% lower prevalence of lesions when some form of lip protection was used. Eighty percent of studies on RHL identified that the application of LPA is effective in preventing RHL. Subjects who applied LPA more than once daily only had half the risk of having LC compared to those who applied once daily.

Conclusion:

This review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies supports the use of LPA as an effective method in preventing lip-associated lesions. Further, RCTs and observational studies should aim at determining a definitive LPA application regime and optimal SPF strength to prevent lip-associated lesions.

This systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): Registration Number - CRD42020177484. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020177484

Keywords: Lip, Sunscreening agents, Herpes labialis, Actinic cheilitis, Lip neoplasms, Lip cancer, Prevention.