An Update on Root Canal Preparation Techniques and How to Avoid Procedural Errors in Endodontics

The Open Dentistry Journal 24 Aug 2021 REVIEW ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874210602115010318



Effective root canal treatment involves cleaning and shaping root canals using a range of instrumentation procedures and techniques. The aim of this review was to provide an update on root canal hand instrumentation techniques and how to overcome iatrogenic errors.


A comprehensive search was carried out using multiple databases, PubMed, Medline, Google scholar, and Scopus, to identify relevant studies addressing the objective of this study and to summarize the current evidence to readers. Keywords, i.e., endodontics, root canal preparation, hand instrumentation, techniques and procedural errors, as well as, MeSH terms, i.e. “endodontics”, “instrumentation”, “root canal preparation” were used to conduct our comprehensive search.


The hybrid technique is a commonly-used approach that combines the benefits of both the crown-down and step-back techniques and was reported to be one of the best techniques to produce an optimal root canal preparation outcome. Hand-instrument manipulation using the balanced forced technique is also favoured as it rapidly and safely permits removal of canal contents allowing irrigants and medications to reach deep inside canal spaces.


The use of hand files is still recommended for initial canal negotiation and preparation and is essential for the correction of procedural errors. This study provided an update on several hand instrumentation techniques commonly used in endodontics. The correct and safe application of these techniques can prevent iatrogenic procedural errors from occurring which optimizes the quality of treatment outcome.

Keywords: Endodontics, Root canal preparation, Hand instrumentation, Techniques, Procedural errors, Treatment.
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