Antifungal Effectiveness between Tricalcium Silicate-White Portland Cements Added Bi2O3 and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Against Candida albicans

The Open Dentistry Journal 31 December 2020 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874210602014010757



Candida albicans is the most dominant fungus found in root canal reinfection cases. This microorganism can withstand extreme pH, low oxygen levels, lack of nutrients, and penetrate the dentinal tubules so that it can resist the intracanal medicament. Root canal cement helps prevent microorganisms and causing root canal reinfection. MTA is one of the root canals cement which is widely used and has an excellent antifungal activity, but it is less beneficial economically. Tricalcium silicate-white Portland cement (WPC) has a similar main composition as MTA, except there is no Bi2O3 content that functions as a radiopacifier.


To fabricate a mixture of tricalcium silicate-WPC with Bi2O3 through a simple solution method and investigate antifungal activity's effectiveness between tricalcium silicate-WPC added Bi2O3 and MTA to C. albicans.

Materials and Methods:

The 80 g of tricalcium silicate-WPC was mixed with 20 g of Bi2O3 through the simple solution method using 99.9% isopropanol as a solution. This sample solution is stirred until homogeneous, then centrifuged. The precipitate was dried until a dry powder was obtained. The powder was analyzed using X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry to identify its chemical composition and concentration. A total of 30 samples were divided into two experimental groups of tricalcium silicate-WPC added Bi2O3 and ProRoot MTA. The vials, which contain cement and C. albicans, respectively, were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and diluted to obtain a suspension 104, 106 (0.5 in McFarland’s nephelometer) and then inoculated with sterile cotton swabs onto Saboroud Dextrose Agar Plates. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The measurement of colony number of C. albicans was counted by colony counter (CFU/ml).


The Bi2O3 was revealed in tricalcium silicate-WPC based on XRF characterization, and the antifungal test showed that both materials were effective against C. albicans. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of C. albicans colonies between tricalcium-WPC added Bi2O3 and MTA (p>0.05).


The mixture of Bi2O3 in tricalcium silicate-WPC was successfully fabricated through a simple solution method, and both samples were effective against the C. albicans.

Keywords: Tricalcium silicate-white portland cement, Bi2O3, MTA, Candida albicans, Chemical composition, Colony counter (CFU/ml).
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