Anxiety is an important factor in the process of chronic pain in patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction (TMD).


The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of minimally invasive management of muscular TMD on the levels of anxiety (state and trait), pain, and other parameters in patients with muscular TMD.


A total of 83 patients (64 women and 19 men; mean age, 25.16 ± 4.40 years) who were clinically diagnosed with TMD were evaluated. During the first clinical session (T1) and after clinical evaluation and diagnosis, the participants filled out a pain visual analog scale and answered the Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). In addition, the bite strength of the participants was evaluated, and minimally invasive management (thermotherapy, orientation exercises, and cognitive behavioral therapy) was initiated in that session. After 8 weeks (T2), all parameters were reevaluated. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and found to have a significance level of 5%.


A significant decrease in pain, STAI-T, and STAI-S scales were observed from T1 to T2 (p < 0.0001). Higher values of bite strength were observed at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of pain, trait-anxiety, and state-anxiety.


Minimally invasive management of TMD resulted in a reduction in the levels of pain and anxiety (trait and state) of the participants evaluated, suggesting a possible association of these factors with chronic myofascial pain.

Keywords: Temporomandibular joint disorders, Anxiety, Pain, Dentistry, Psychological factors, Depression.
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