RESEARCH ARTICLE


S. mutans Serotype c, C. albicans, Oral Hygiene, and Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth in Early Childhood Caries



Nurul Rahmah1, Boy M. Bachtiar1, Ferry P. Gultom1, Retno D. Soejoedono2, Endang W. Bachtiar1, *
1 Department of Oral Biology and Oral Science Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jalan Salemba No. 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
2 Department of Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary, IPB University Dramaga Campus, Bogor 16680, Indonesia


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Creative Commons License
© 2020 Rahmah et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Biology and Oral Science Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jalan Salemba No. 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia; Tel: +6281214010491; Fax: +6221330270; E-mail: endang04@ui.ac.id


Abstract

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity of Streptococcus mutans serotype c and Candida albicans antigens from dental plaque and their relationship with the Oral Hygiene Index Score (OHI-S) and Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) in Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC).

Materials and Methods:

This was a cross-sectional study, including 5 ECC and 32 S-ECC subjects. ECC was classified as a DMFT score < 4, and S-ECC was classified as a DMFT score ≥ 4 at 71 months of age. S. mutans serotype c and C. albicans antigens from dental plaque of ECC and S-ECC patients were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The optical density ​​of S. mutans serotype c and C. albicans antigens was determined at 450 nm. Correlations between S. mutans serotype c and C. albicans antigens and OHI-S in ECC and S-ECC were analyzed.

Results:

There were no significant differences in S. mutans serotype c and C. albicans antigens between ECC and S-ECC patients or between patients with moderate and good OHI-S scores. There was a negative correlation between S. mutans serotype c and C. albicans antigens in ECC patients (r = -0,62; p < 0.05).

Conclusion:

The increase in C. albicans suppresses S. mutans serotype c growth in ECC but not in S-ECC. The findings of this study could be used to discover the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial-fungal relationships and the contribution of new technologies to reduce ECC.

Keywords: Early childhood caries, Immunology, S. mutans serotype c, C. albicans, Oral Hygiene Index-Score (OHI-S), Decayed missing filled teeth (dmft).