Effects of Consuming Catha Edulis Forsk (khat) on the Gene Manifestation of CHRM1 and CHRM3 in relation to Salivary Glands, Saliva Flow Rates, pH and Dental Caries in Yemeni Consumers

The Open Dentistry Journal 23 Oct 2020 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874210602014010482



The current study has been conducted to estimate the impact of Catha Edulis Forsk (simply known as khat) on pH and saliva flow rate in teeth unaffected by caries among patients from Arab, Yemen, consuming the plant. The goal was to evaluate the relation of these indicators with gene manifestation of CHRM1 and CHRM3, which contributes to the regulation of saliva secretions.


Overall, 60 respondents aged between 27 and 54 years were selected for the research. They were distributed among two groups, group I and group II, including 30 respondents equally. Group I incorporated respondents consuming no khat, having teeth caries, adequate saliva flow, and generally, healthy oral cavity. In turn, group II incorporated respondents consuming khat having caries-free teeth, inadequate saliva flow and relatively unhealthy oral cavity. Saliva samples were taken from all respondents. They were analyzed for indicators of flow rate as well as pH of saliva. Salivary gland biopsy specimens have also been taken. The whole RNA was allocated, cDNA synthesized and reinforced to estimate the gene manifestation of CHRM1 and CHRM3.


A considerable rise in the mean salivary flow rate along with a drastic decline in the mean salivary pH within caries-free teeth among the respondents consuming khat was observed during the study. The mRNA expressions CHRM1 and CHRM3 were significantly increased among participants consuming khat. Results were contrasted to the control group of patients not consuming khat.


The characteristics of salivary flow rate, pH, and caries-free teeth have been related to the gene manifestations of CHRM1 and CHRM3 in respondents consuming khat.

Keywords: Catha Edulis Forsk (khat),CHRM1, CHRM3, Salivary glands, Saliva flow rates, pH, Dental caries.
Fulltext HTML PDF