Clinical Analysis of Analgesics and Steroids Use for Extraction of Teeth in Patients with Intellectual Disability Under General Anesthesia

Shigeru Maeda1, *, Yuka Honda2, Hiroshi Tanimura2, Yumiko Tomoyasu2, Hitoshi Higuchi1, Naomichi Murata3, Masahiko Egusa3, Takuya Miyawaki2
1 Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan
2 Department of Dental Anesthesiology and Special Care Dentistry, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.
3 Special Needs Dentistry, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan

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© 2017 Maeda et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8525, Japan; Tel: +81-86-235-6721; E-mail:



The extraction of lower wisdom teeth is often performed under general anesthesia in patients with intellectual disabilities. However, the choice of analgesics has not yet been investigated.


To analyze the use of analgesics during general anesthesia for extraction including lower wisdom teeth in patients with intellectual disabilities.


This research is a retrospective observational study. The study population was composed of all patients presenting for extraction of lower wisdom teeth under ambulatory general anesthesia in the clinic of Special Needs Dentistry in Okayama University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2016. The distribution of the combination of analgesics and the relationship between the use of analgesics and the type of extraction were investigated.


One hundred and twelve cases were enrolled in this study. Intravenous injections of flurbiprofen, acetaminophen and betamethasone were used in 96 (85.7%), 12 (10.7%) and 26 cases (23.2%), respectively. Flurbiprofen is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Acetaminophen is an old analgesic, but an injection of acetaminophen is new, which was released in 2013 in Japan. And betamethasone is not an analgesic, but a steroid. Betamethasone was used in combination with other analgesics, and was used at a higher dose in a case in which four wisdom teeth were extracted.


Flurbiprofen was the main analgesic used for extraction of wisdom teeth under general anesthesia in patients with intellectual disabilities. Betamethasone was used to support flurbiprofen or acetaminophen for extractions of multiple wisdom teeth, with the aim of controlling swelling rather than relieving pain.

Keywords: Acetaminophen, Betamethasone, Extraction, Flurbiprofen, General anesthesia, Intellectual disability.