Volumetric Analysis of Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Peri-Implant Sulcus Fluid in Healthy and Diseased Sites: A Cross-Sectional Split-Mouth Pilot Study

Lorenzo Bevilacqua1, Matteo De Biasi2, Maria Giulia Lorenzon1, Costanza Frattini1, Daniele Angerame1, *
1 University Clinical Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
2 Graduate School of Nanotechnology, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy

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Bevilacqua et al; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at University Clinical Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, Dental Clinic, Piazza Ospedale 1, 34125 Trieste, Italy; Tel: +39 040 3992761; Fax: +39 040 3992665; E-mail:



Researchers have recently drawn attention to the analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) for the implementation of the diagnosis of periodontal and peri-implant disease. Nevertheless, the measurements of volume and biomarkers concentration can be critically biased when data collected from studies with parallel group design are compared, given the technical difficulties, methodological variables, as well as the variability of crevicular fluid characteristics among different individuals.


The aim of the present study was to assess the GCF and PISF volumes in healthy and diseased sites belonging to the same patient.


Ten patients presenting a periodontally healthy tooth, a tooth with periodontitis, an implant with healthy peri-implant tissues and an implant with peri-implantitis were enrolled. Samples of GCF and PISF were collected from each site of interest and their volume measured with a Periotron 8000 device. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed to test the significance of the differences in GCF and PISF volumes between i) sites of teeth and dental implants with the same condition of health or disease and ii) healthy and diseased sites of both teeth and dental implants subgroups. The correlation between probing pocket depth (PPD) and fluid production was also tested (p<0.05).


Healthy periodontal and peri-implant tissues produced comparable amounts of fluid that was significantly lower than in diseased sites (p<0.05). In the presence of diagnosed disease, the volumes of GCF and PISF were similar, too. The correlation between PPD and fluid production was significant only in healthy sites (PPD/GCF, ρ=0.890, p<0.001; PPD/PISF, ρ=0.810; p<0.005).


The periodontal and peri-implant tissues behaved similarly in terms of fluid production in condition of both health and active disease.

Keywords: Dental implant, gingival crevicular fluid, inflammation, peri-implant sulcus fluid, peri-implantitis, periodontitis, Periotron 8000.