The Effect of Artificial Aging on The Bond Strength of Heat-activated Acrylic Resin to Surface-treated Nickel-chromium-beryllium Alloy

Youssef S. Al Jabbari1, *, Spiros Zinelis2, Sara M. Al Taweel3, William W. Nagy4
1 Dental Biomaterials Research and Development Chair, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh - Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Athens University, Athens, Greece; Consultant, Dental Biomaterials Research and Development Chair, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh - Saudi Arabia
3 Dental Biomaterials Research and Development Chair, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh - Saudi Arabia
4 Graduate Prosthodontics, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A&M University, Dallas, Texas - USA.

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© Al Jabbari et al. ; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to these authors at the Director, Dental Biomaterials Research and Development Research Chair Associate Professor, Prosthetic Dental Sciences Department College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 11545, E-mail:



The debonding load of heat-activated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin material to a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloy conditioned by three different surface treatments and utilizing two different commercial bonding systems was investigated.

Materials and Methods

Denture resin (Lucitone-199) was bonded to Ni-Cr-Be alloy specimens treated with Metal Primer II, the Rocatec system with opaquer and the Rocatec system without opaquer. Denture base resin specimens bonded to non-treated sandblasted Ni-Cr-Be alloy were used as controls. Twenty samples for each treatment condition (80 specimens) were tested. The 80 specimens were divided into two categories, thermocycled and non-thermocycled, containing four groups of ten specimens each. The non-thermocycled specimens were tested after 48 hours’ storage in room temperature water. The thermocycled specimens were tested after 2,000 cycles in 4°C and 55°C water baths. The debonding load was calculated in Newtons (N), and collected data were subjected by non parametric test Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks and Dunn’s post hoc test at the α = 0.05.


The Metal Primer II and Rocatec system without opaquer groups produced significantly higher bond strengths (119.9 and 67.6 N), respectively, than did the sandblasted and Rocatec system with opaquer groups, where the bond strengths were 2.6 N and 0 N, respectively. The Metal Primer II was significantly different from all other groups (P<0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after thermocycling.


Although thermocycling had a detrimental effect on the debonding load of all surface treatments tested, the Metal Primer II system provided higher values among all bonding systems tested, before and after thermocycling.

Keywords: Debonding load, Metal conditioners, Denture base material, Nickel-chromium-beryllium alloy, Rocatec system.