Revascularization of an Immature Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Calcium Hydroxide: A 3-year Follow-up

Mauro Henrique Chagas Silva1, Celso Neiva Campos2, Marcelo Santos Coelho3, *
1 Private Practice, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
2 Endodontic Department, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil
3 Department of Endodontics –University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States

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© Silva et al. ; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Endodontics, UNC School of Dentistry, 1150 Old Dental, Building, CB #7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450, United States; Tel: + 1 919 537 2081; E-mail:


Root canal treatment of teeth presenting immature development is a great challenge for both the patient and the professional. The thinness of the root canal walls of immature teeth may lead to root fracture and thus the outcomes of such treatments are uncertain. Revascularization is based on root canal decontamination followed by the induction of blood migration from the periapical tissues and the development of new vascular tissue in the canal space. The principle of disinfection in regenerative endodontics is that it should be achieved with minimum root canal instrumentation; an intracanal medication is used to inhibit bacterial growth and appropriate sealing of the coronal portion is performed. The American Association of Endodontists (AAE) considerations for regenerative endodontics include calcium hydroxide as an alternative intracanal dressing. This material has also been claimed to diminish the possibility of dental staining during revascularization procedures. The relatively new treatment protocol has been widely reported in the last few years; however it should be performed only when other alternatives are not reasonable. This case report presents a 3-year follow-up of a case of revascularization of a maxillary central incisor using calcium hydroxide as a root canal disinfection dressing.

Keywords: Calcium hydroxide, endodontics, pulp biology, regenerative endodontics, revascularization, traumatized teeth.