Independent Factors Affecting Recovery Time After Sedation in Patients with Intellectual Disabilities

Shigeru Maeda 1, *, Yumiko Tomayasu 2, Hitoshi Higuchi 1, Minako Ishii-Maruhama 1, Ayaka Yamane 1, Akiko Yabuki 1, Yuka Honda 2, Masahiko Egusa 3, Takuya Miyawaki 2
1 Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Okayama University Hospital. Okayama, Japan
2 Department of Dental Anesthesiology and Special Care Dentistry, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
3 Special Needs Dentistry, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan

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© Maeda et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8525, Japan; Tel/Fax: +81-86-235-6721; E-mail:


Purpose : The purpose of this study was to identify independent factors associated with prolonged recovery time after intravenous sedation for dental treatment in patients with intellectual disabilities. Methods : This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Participants were patients with intellectual disabilities, for whom sedation for dental treatment was planned in Okayama University Hospital. The outcome variable was recovery time. The predictor variables were patient background, antiepileptic and psychotropic drugs, and anesthesia-related variables. Factors affecting the outcome were examined with multiple regression analysis. Results : We enrolled 260 cases in this study. Oral midazolam was a strong independent determinant in prolonged recovery time. Teeth extraction, short treatment time and lower body mass index were significant independent predictors of prolonged recovery time. Conclusion : Oral midazolam is a clear independent determinant of prolonged recovery time after sedation, while psychotropic drugs and antiepileptic drugs were not independent determinants in this study.

Keywords: Anesthesia recovery period, intellectual disability, midazolam, propofol.