Self Reported Halitosis in Relation to Glycated Hemoglobin Level in Diabetic Patients
Mohammad S Al-Zahrani1, Khalid H Zawawi2, *, Obadah N Austah3, Hamed S Al-Ghamdi4
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2011
First Page: 154
Last Page: 157
Publisher ID: TODENTJ-5-154
Article History:Received Date: 27/4/2011
Revision Received Date: 4/7/2011
Acceptance Date: 5/7/2011
Electronic publication date: 16/9/2011
Collection year: 2011
open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) and halitosis status among diabetic patients affected with periodontitis and to examine if there is a relationship between halitosis and different periodontal parameters.
Methods and Materials:
Consecutive type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from patients presented for treatment at a University hospital. Age, gender and smoking were recorded. A structured questionnaire on patients’ perception of their oral health, halitosis and diabetes severity and control was completed. Peripheral blood samples were obtained and analyzed for HbA1c levels. In addition, periodontal clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing and plaque scores were recorded.
A total of 38 type 2 diabetic patients were selected. The mean age was 52.1 (±8.8) years. Sixteen subjects (42.1%) reported halitosis. Of these, 62.5% were females, and only one subject was a current smoker. The mean levels of HbA1c were significantly different between those with and without halitosis, mean 9.6 (±2) and 8.2 (±1.6), respectively (p=0.03). No significant differences were found in the mean periodontal parameters between those with and without halitosis.
The results of this study suggest an association between halitosis and increased levels of HbA1c. Further studies are needed to explain the nature of this association.