Self Reported Halitosis in Relation to Glycated Hemoglobin Level in Diabetic Patients

The Open Dentistry Journal 16 Sept 2011 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874210601105010154



This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) and halitosis status among diabetic patients affected with periodontitis and to examine if there is a relationship between halitosis and different periodontal parameters.

Methods and Materials:

Consecutive type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from patients presented for treatment at a University hospital. Age, gender and smoking were recorded. A structured questionnaire on patients’ perception of their oral health, halitosis and diabetes severity and control was completed. Peripheral blood samples were obtained and analyzed for HbA1c levels. In addition, periodontal clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing and plaque scores were recorded.


A total of 38 type 2 diabetic patients were selected. The mean age was 52.1 (±8.8) years. Sixteen subjects (42.1%) reported halitosis. Of these, 62.5% were females, and only one subject was a current smoker. The mean levels of HbA1c were significantly different between those with and without halitosis, mean 9.6 (±2) and 8.2 (±1.6), respectively (p=0.03). No significant differences were found in the mean periodontal parameters between those with and without halitosis.


The results of this study suggest an association between halitosis and increased levels of HbA1c. Further studies are needed to explain the nature of this association.

Keywords: Halitosis, Bad Breath, Glycated Hemoglobin, HbA1c. Diabetes, Periodontitis.
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