Evaluation of Oral Mucosal Lesions in 598 Referred Iranian Patients

Jahanfar Jahanbani1, Leiv Sandvik2, 3, Torstein Lyberg3, Eva Ahlfors3, 4, *
1 Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Iran
2 Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Norway
3 Center for Clinical Research, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
4 Present address: Department of Oral Pathology, Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, Finland

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© Jahanbani et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Pathology, Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, FI- 20520 Turku, Finland; Tel: +35823338211; Fax: +35823338399; E-mail:


The mucosal membrane of the oral cavity displays at times classical developmental lesions considered to be variations of normal structures rather than having disease characteristics. Of these lesions leukoedema, Fordyce granules, geographic-, fissured- and hairy tongue, median rhomboid glossitis and lingual varices were studied in 598 patients referred to the School of Dentistry, Tehran, Iran. The prevalence was studied in relation to age, gender, occupation, education, smoking habits, general health, addictions and or drug therapies. Oral developmental lesions were seen in 295 patients (49.3%). Only Fordyce granules (27,9%), fissured tongue (12,9%), leukoedema (12,5%) and hairy tongue (8,9%) had enough cases for statistical analysis. Three of these lesions increased with age but not fissured tongue. All were more common in men. After adjusting for age, the parameters education, occupation and complaints upon referral had little influence on the prevalence of the lesions. Fewer Fordyce granules were seen in oral mucosa of smoking men. Leukoedema and hairy tongue were significantly associated with smoking, leukoedema with diabetes mellitus. We conclude that there was a highly significant association between these oral lesions and age, gender and smoking. Few significant associations were found between oral lesions and general diseases.

Key Words: Oral lesions, statistics, general diseases.