Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to Fiber-Reinforced Filling Composite and Conventional Restorative Materials

Lippo V.J Lassila, Sufyan Garoushi*, Johanna Tanner, Pekka K Vallittu, Eva Söderling
Department of Prosthetic Dentistry & Biomaterials Science, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

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© Lassila et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials Science, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 2, FI-20520 Turku, Finland; Tel: + 358-2-333; Fax: + 358-2-333-83-90; E-mail:



The aim was to investigate the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to a short glass fibers reinforced semi-IPN polymer matrix composite resin. The effect of surface roughness on adhesion was also studied. For comparison, different commercial restorative materials were also evaluated.

Materials and Methods.

Experimental composite FC resin was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers, 22.5 wt% of IPN-resin and 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers using high speed mixing machine. Three direct composite resins (Z250, Grandio and Nulite), resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji II LC), amalgam (ANA 2000), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) (everStick and Ribbond), and pre-fabricated ceramic filling insert (Cerana class 1) were tested in this study. Enamel and dentin were used as controls. The specimens (n=3/group) with or without saliva were incubated in a suspension of S. mutans allowing initial adhesion to occur. For the enumeration of cells on the disc surfaces as colony forming units (CFU) the vials with the microbe samples were thoroughly Vortex-treated and after serial dilutions grown anaerobically for 2 days at +37°C on Mitis salivarius agars (Difco) containing bacitracin. Bacterial adhesion was also evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness (Ra) of the materials was also determined using a surface profilometer. All results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).


Composite FC resin and other commercial restorative materials showed similar adhesion of S. mutans, while adhesion to dentin and enamel was significantly higher (p<0.05). Surface roughness had no effect on bacterial adhesion. Saliva coating significantly decreased the adhesion for all materials (p<0.05). Composite FC resin had a significantly higher Ra value than control groups (p<0.05).


Short fiber-reinforced composite with semi-IPN polymer matrix revealed similar S. mutans adhesion than commercial restorative materials.

Keywords: Bacterial adhesion, surface roughness, fiber composite resin, restorative materials.