Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity of Panax Ginseng and Symphytum Officinale with Metronidazole against P. gingivalis: An MIC and MBC Analysis

The Open Dentistry Journal 07 May 2024 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118742106299402240425053257



The RapID ANA II panel was used to evaluate bacterial responses, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were established.


This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial effects of Metronidazole, Symphytum Officinale, and Panax Ginseng on P. gingivalis

Materials and Methods

P. gingivalis strains, including strain ATCC 33277 and an isolate, were selected and prepared. A variety of test compounds, including Metronidazole, Symphytum Officinale, and Panax Ginseng, were procured and manufactured. A consistent technique was used to determine the MIC and MBC. We used the RapID ANA II panel to assess bacterial responses. Additionally, a suitable software was used to conduct the statistical analysis.


The findings from the MIC and MBC tests showed notable variations and a noticeable impact of the combination therapy (G+F and S+F) in comparison to the individual drugs alone. Lower MIC and MBC values were seen when Panax Ginseng and Metronidazole (G+F) and Symphytum Officinale and Metronidazole (S+F) were combined, demonstrating a synergistic effect (p < 0.01). Positive results were found for ρ-Nitrophenyl-β, D-disaccharide (BLTS), σ-Nitrophenyl-β, D-galactoside (ONPG), ρ-Nitrophenyl-n-acetyl-β, D glucosaminide (NAG), ρ-Nitrophenylphosphate (PO4), Phenylalanine-β-naphthylamide (PAL), Pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide (PYR), and Tryptophane (IND) in the RapID ANA II panel, whereas negative results were obtained for Urea (URE), ρ-Nitrophenyl-α, L-arabinoside (aARA), ρ-Nitrophenyl-α, D-glucoside (aGLU), ρ-Nitrophenyl-β, D-glucoside (BGLU), ρ-Nitrophenyl-α, D-galactoside (aGAL), ρ-Nitrophenyl-α, L-fucoside (aFUC), Proline-β-naphthylamide (PRO), and Serine-β-naphthylamide (SER).


Our study shows that combination therapies using Panax Ginseng and Symphytum Officnale with Metronidazole have increased antibacterial efficacy against P. gingivalis. These results point to the possibility of these herbal remedies complementing conventional medicine. In this study, the RapID ANA II panel helped identify and characterise P. gingivalis by offering useful insights into bacterial reactions. Nonetheless, it is necessary to conduct more studies to examine the therapeutic uses of these alternative P. gingivalis infection treatments.

Keywords: Panax ginseng, Symphytum officinale, Metronidazole, P. gingivalis, Antibacterial activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum bactericidal concentration, Combination therapy, RapID ANA II panel.
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