Effect of SARS CoV-2 Infection on Periodontal Tissue: A Systematic Review

Edi Karyadi1, *, Aulia Azizah Vidya Bouty2, M. Mutalazimah3
1 Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia
2 Student of Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia
3 Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia

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© 2023 Karyadi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia; Tel: +62-82325449591; E-mail:



Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) infection in human respiratory cells. The first spread of this disease first occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the spread of the infection as a global pandemic. People who are infected experience mild to moderate clinical symptoms which are characterized by an increase in T cell, CD8, and IgM/IgG levels. The occurrence of severe clinical symptoms reflects an excessive and uncontrolled increase in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which impacts the systemic condition and periodontal tissues of affected patients.


The aim of this study is to describe the impact of SARS CoV-2 infection on periodontal tissues.


In this study, we searched the NCBI, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Research Gate databases. The keywords used were “coronavirus disease” or “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2” with “oral manifestations” and “periodontal,” and we screened the articles using the PRISMA flow diagram.


Patients with COVID-19 present with a variety of systemic symptoms, as well as manifestations in the periodontal tissues, especially in the gingival area.


SARS CoV-2 infection can impact periodontal tissues in the form of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, aphthous stomatitis, gingival hyperpigmentation, edema and erythema, lichen planus, and aphthous-like ulcers.

Keywords: COVID-19, Gingiva, Periodontal, Tissue, Periodontal disease, SARS-CoV-2,.