Golden Proportion, Preston’s Proportion, RED Proportion, and Golden Percentage are the most common theories suggested in the literature to be used for smile analysis and design.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of these four dental aesthetic proportions in a Saudi sample and alternatively propose a modified method for anterior teeth analysis.

Materials and Methods:

The Standardized frontal image of the dentition of 200 selected students was taken. The proportions (Golden Proportion, Preston’s Proportion, RED Proportion, and Golden Percentage) of the maxillary anterior teeth photographs were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop software. One-sample t-test was used and the p-value was taken significantly when less than 0.05 [p<0.05] and a confidence interval of 95%.


The assessed Golden Proportion values showed a statistically significant difference from the standard value (62%; p-value < 0.05), Preston’s Proportion showed an insignificant difference from the standard values (p-value > 0.05), Golden Percentage, showed that as much as 77% of 12 teeth and 77.5% of 22 teeth conformed to it. The average mathematically rounded percentages found in this study are as follows: 13%, 15%, 22%, 23%, 15%, and 12%, respectively. No complete matching to RED Proportion was found in any sample.


All tested proportions except Golden Percentage did not conform to standard values and thus have limited application in anterior teeth analysis in the studied population. The proposed modified Golden Percentages in this study are more representative and recommended for smile design for the Saudi population.

Keywords: Aesthetics, Golden proportion, Preston’s proportion, RED proportion, Teeth.
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