A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Study of Root Anatomy, Canal Morphology and Bilateral Symmetry of Permanent Maxillary Premolar Teeth Among the Qatari Subpopulation

Hanan Diab1, *, Fatima Al-Sheeb1, Amal Diab1, Nadya Marouf1, Maryam Al Obaid1, Mashael Lari1
1 Department of Dentistry, Oral Health Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar

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© 2022 Diab et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Dentistry, Oral Health Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; E-mail:



The study aims to evaluate the root anatomy, canal morphology, and symmetry of maxillary premolars teeth in a Qatari subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and Methods:

544 CBCT images of Qatari patients were analyzed by two endodontists. Tooth position, number of roots, canal configuration, and number of canals per root were investigated. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between gender and the number of roots. The interexaminer and intraexaminer were performed and documented.


The most common root anatomy and canal morphology observed in maxillary first premolars (MFP) were two roots (70.6%) with a single canal per root, while in maxillary second premolars (MSP), there was one root (84.3%) with a single canal (83%).

Type I Vertucci morphology was predominated in all roots of two-rooted MFP (97%), three-rooted MFP (100%), single-rooted MSP (42%), and two-rooted MSP (100%). The Chi-square test showed an association between gender and number of roots in both MFP and MSP, with a higher number of roots seen in men(P<0.05).

A symmetrical pattern was observed in the number of roots and canals in both maxillary premolars. But the symmetry for the type of canal configuration is higher in MFP (78%) than MSP (54%).


In the Qatari subpopulation, most MFP had two roots with a predominance of type I Vertucci, while MSP had one root with type I. Contralateral MSP showed more diversity in canal configuration that should be considered during root canal treatment. CBCT is an effective diagnostic tool to investigate root anatomy and canal morphology.

Keywords: Maxillary premolars, Root anatomy, Canal morphology, Cone beam computed tomography, Symmetry, Chi-square test.