Formulation and Antibacterial Potential of Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendans) against Oral Pathogenic Bacteria: An In Vitro Study

Ameta Primasari1, *, Eti Apriyanti2, Nurul Ambardhani2, Mieke Hemiawati Satari3, Yetty Herdiyati4, Dikdik Kurnia2
1 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia
3 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia
4 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 488
Abstract HTML Views: 253
PDF Downloads: 156
ePub Downloads: 65
Total Views/Downloads: 962
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 289
Abstract HTML Views: 145
PDF Downloads: 115
ePub Downloads: 40
Total Views/Downloads: 589

Creative Commons License
© 2022 Primasari et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Biology, Faculty Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia; E-mail:



Dental diseases are generally caused by oral bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis. These bacteria have resistance to synthetic drugs; thus, it is required to discover new antibacterial agents. Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendans) has been empirically used as a medicinal plant to treat various conditions, including those caused by pathogenic bacteria.


The present study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of Sarang Semut extracts against E. faecalis, S. mutans, and S. sanguinis.

Materials and Methods:

Sarang Semut was extracted with several solvents to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts. Each extract and combination were adjusted for assay with chlorhexidine, fosfomycin, and quercetin and used as positive controls.


The n-hexane extract showed activity with inhibition zone values of 7.15 and 10.45 ppm against E. faecalis and S. mutans at 1%, respectively. All combination extracts could inhibit the growth of E. faecalis and S. sanguinis. The synergistic effects resulting from the combination of extract-fosfomycin were also presented in this evaluation, with the strongest shown by water-fosfomycin against S. mutans, with inhibition zones of 28.5 mm at 1%.


Sarang Semut extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against oral pathogenic bacteria. These results offer alternative natural sources for the new antibacterial drug candidate.

Keywords: Sarang Semut, Mrymecodia pendans, Antibacterial activity, E. faecalis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis.