RESEARCH ARTICLE


Formulation and Antibacterial Potential of Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendans) against Oral Pathogenic Bacteria: An In Vitro Study



Ameta Primasari1, *, Eti Apriyanti2, Nurul Ambardhani2, Mieke Hemiawati Satari3, Yetty Herdiyati4, Dikdik Kurnia2
1 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia
3 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang, Indonesia
4 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Primasari et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Biology, Faculty Dentistry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia; E-mail: ameta.primasari@usu.ac.id


Abstract

Background:

Dental diseases are generally caused by oral bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis. These bacteria have resistance to synthetic drugs; thus, it is required to discover new antibacterial agents. Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendans) has been empirically used as a medicinal plant to treat various conditions, including those caused by pathogenic bacteria.

Objective:

The present study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of Sarang Semut extracts against E. faecalis, S. mutans, and S. sanguinis.

Materials and Methods:

Sarang Semut was extracted with several solvents to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts. Each extract and combination were adjusted for assay with chlorhexidine, fosfomycin, and quercetin and used as positive controls.

Results:

The n-hexane extract showed activity with inhibition zone values of 7.15 and 10.45 ppm against E. faecalis and S. mutans at 1%, respectively. All combination extracts could inhibit the growth of E. faecalis and S. sanguinis. The synergistic effects resulting from the combination of extract-fosfomycin were also presented in this evaluation, with the strongest shown by water-fosfomycin against S. mutans, with inhibition zones of 28.5 mm at 1%.

Conclusion:

Sarang Semut extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against oral pathogenic bacteria. These results offer alternative natural sources for the new antibacterial drug candidate.

Keywords: Sarang Semut, Mrymecodia pendans, Antibacterial activity, E. faecalis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis.