Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Antibacterial Activity of Nano Titania-Enriched Alkasite Restorative Material: An In Vitro Study

Neven S. Aref1, 2, *
, Reham M. Abdallah1, 3
1 Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
2 Department of Basic Oral and Medical Sciences, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, Buraydah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Horus University, New Damietta, Egypt

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© 2022 Aref and Abdallah

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516 El Gomhoria St, Egypt; Tel: +201003978955; Fax: +2(50)2202835; E-mails:,



A biocompatible additive with the ability to establish antibacterial action for restorative materials without sacrificing their physical properties is always in demand. Nano titania (TiO2 nanoparticles) was shown to have antimicrobial action against a wide range of microorganisms. Alkasite is a modern esthetic restorative material that has outstanding properties; however, it is deficient in antibacterial activity.


TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were included in alkasite, and both mechanical properties and antibacterial activity of the new formulations were assessed.

Materials and Methods:

Nano titania powder was coupled to alkasite powder in proportions of 3 and 5% (w/w). There were 105 specimens made in total. Evaluation parameters were compressive strength, surface microhardness, surface roughness, water sorption and solubility, and antibacterial activity. One and two-way ANOVA were used for the statistical analysis, followed by Tukey′s test (p<0.05).


Both ratios of nano titania, 3 and 5% (w/w), significantly increased compressive strength, antibacterial activity against different pathogens, and decreased water solubility of alkasite (p<0.05). Only 5% (w/w) nano titania-modified alkasite exhibited significant decrease in water sorption (p<0.05). Conversely, an insignificant increase in microhardness and surface roughness was observed with both ratios, 3 and 5% (w/w) of nano titania (p˃0.05).


Nano titania seems to be a very promising complementary additive to the alkasite restorative material, capable of generating considerable antibacterial effectiveness while also enhancing certain mechanical properties.

Keywords: Alkasite, Antibacterial activity, Compressive strength, Nano titania, Surface microhardness, Surface roughness.