Radiation protection in the dental examination is often overlooked because the doses delivered are negligible. However, the volume of dental radiological examinations will constitute almost 15% of all the radiological examinations carried out in the medical field.


This study aims to evaluate and compare the surface equivalent dose on various target organs from various radiology devices on the RINN phantom, and the effect of numerous scanning protocols on said dose using dosimetry badge (Instadose).


The main objective is to study surface equivalent doses delivered in various critical organ regions in the facial region with the help of an Instadose device and to compare the doses delivered between 2D programs against 3D programs.

Materials and Methods:

RINN phantom was mounted on a dental chair for use against Planmeca ProMax 3D Classic and Planmeca intraoral ProX. Models. An Instadose badge was placed on various anatomical landmarks, and radiographic exposure protocols were applied to vary the parameters. The equivalent dose was calculated by connecting the dosimeter to a laptop and performing an instant reading output on the Instadose software.


The Thyroid showed a mean of 0.350, 0.0000, 0.0133, and 0.0000 in response to exposure by intraoral machine ProX, Panoramic, CBCT, and CBCT in ULD mode respectively. The dose absorbed by the left salivary glands was found to be significantly lower than the right salivary glands in panoramic exposures.


It was revealed that a significant reduction in the dose when applying the Ultra-Low Dose protocol was noticed, and it reached up to 100% in the thyroid. It was also noted that there is no need for a thyroid collar in CBCT and Panoramic exposures. Maintaining the KVp at a constant and the exposure time as a variant caused a change in the dose equivalent received by the floor of the mouth and the right salivary gland.

Keywords: Dosimetry, Cone-beam computed tomography, Panoramic radiography, Intra-oral radiography, Equivalent dose, Radiation dose, Instadose, Ultra-low dose.
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