Porosity Pattern of 3D Chitosan/Bioactive Glass Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Prepared for Bone Regeneration

Hoda G.H. Hammad1, *, Miral Nagy F. Salama2
1 Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Batterjee Medical College of Science and Technology (BMC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Lecturer of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Misr University For Science And Technology (MUST), Giza, Egypt, Former
2 Anatomy, College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University (GMU), Ajman, United Arab of Emirates, Lecturer of Anatomy and Embryology, College of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

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© 2021 Hammad and Salama.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Batterjee Medical College of Science and Technology (BMC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; E-mail:



The study was conducted to investigate the obtained external and internal porosity and the pore-interconnectivity of specific fabricated bioactive composite tissue engineering scaffolds for bone regeneration in dental applications.

Materials and Methods:

In this study, the bioactive glass [M] was elaborated as a quaternary system to be incorporated into the chitosan [C] scaffold preparation on a magnetic stirrer to provide bioactivity and better strength properties for the attempted composite scaffolds [C/ M] of variable compositions. The homogenous chitosan/bioactive glass mix was poured into tailor-made cylindrical molds [10cm×10cm]; a freeze-dryer program was used for the creation of uniform and interconnected macropores for all prepared chitosan-based scaffolds. The morphology of fabricated chitosan [C] and chitosan-bioactive glass [C/ M] composite scaffolds was studied by a scanning electron microscope [SEM] and a mercury porosimeter. In addition, the in-vitro biodegradation rate of all elaborated scaffolds was reported after immersing the prepared scaffolds in a simulated body fluid [SBF] solution. Furthermore, for every prepared scaffold composition, characterization was performed for phase identification, microstructure, porosity, bioactivity, and mechanical properties using an X-ray diffraction analysis [XRD], an X-ray Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy [FTIR], a mercury porosimetry, a scanning electron microscopy [SEM] coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry [EDS] and a universal testing machine, respectively.


All the prepared porous chitosan-based composite materials showed pore sizes suitable for osteoblasts seeding, with relatively larger pore sizes for the C scaffolds.


The smart blending of the prepared bioactive glass [M] with the chitosan matrix offered some advantages, such as the formation of an apatite layer for cell adhesion upon the scaffold surfaces, the reasonable decrease in scaffold pore size, and the relative increase in compressive strength that were enhanced by the incorporation of [M]. Therefore, the morphology, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the elaborated stress loaded biocomposite tissue engineering scaffolds seem highly dependent on their critical contented bioactive glass.

Keywords: Tissue engineering, Scaffold, Chitosan, Bioactive glass, Freeze-drying, Porosity.