RESEARCH ARTICLE


The Comparison of Biofilm Formation, Mechanical and Chemical Properties between Glass Ionomer Cement and Giomer



Sylva Dinie Alinda1, Anggraini Margono1, *, Aditya Wisnu Putranto1, Ike Dwi Maharti1, Retno Amalina2, Sherly Firsta Rahmi2
1 Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
2 Faculty of Dentistry Bachelor Program, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia


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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Alinda et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Salemba Raya no. 4 Jakarta 10430, Indonesia; Fax: +62 21 3913413; Email: margonodewi@yahoo.com


Abstract

Aims:

The aim of this study was to compare compressive strength and its correlation with the surface morphology and chemical elements of GIC and Giomer, as well as to determine the fluoride amount effect on the bacterial biofilm formation of GIC and Giomer.

Background:

The liability of Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) mechanical properties is overcome with better antibacterial properties among restorative materials. Another fluoride-releasing restorative material, such as Giomer, has been discovered and is expected to overcome the issues with GIC’s mechanical properties; however, no research has been conducted related to antibacterial properties in Giomer.

Objective:

To compare compressive strength and its correlation with the surface morphology and chemical elements, then determine the fluoride amount effect on the bacterial biofilm formation of GIC and Giomer.

Methods:

Sixteen specimens of GIC and Giomer were prepared for a compressive strength measurement with the Universal Testing Machine. Sixteen specimens of GIC and Giomer were incubated for three days with the Streptococcus mutans culture at 37°C. The bacterial colonization was calculated using the Colony Forming Unit (CFU) and bacterial adhesion was calculated using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties’ compressive strength measurement, surface morphology, and chemical elements analyses were performed using SEM-EDX.

Results:

The compressive strength of Giomer was higher than GIC (P=0.001). The higher compressive strength of Giomer was reflected by a predominant regular surface, fewer voids, smaller and denser particles, and a higher content of silica and carbon. The bacterial biofilm on the surface of Giomer was higher than GIC, although there was no significant difference. GIC and Giomer have identical chemical elements: C, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, and Ca.

Conclusion:

The compressive strength of Giomer is better than GIC; however, the biofilm formation of Giomer is higher than GIC, whereas GIC has a higher fluoride content but inferior in surfaces morphology characteristic

Keywords: Compressive strength, Bacterial Biofilm, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Giomer, Glass Ionomer Cement, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).