Effect of Chlorhexidine Varnish and Fluoride Varnish on White Spot Lesions in Orthodontic Patients- a Systematic Review

The Open Dentistry Journal 16 Apr 2021 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW DOI: 10.2174/1874210602115010151



The aim of this study is to critically review the studies that studied the effect of Chlorhexidine varnish and fluoride varnish on White Spot Lesion (WSL) in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

Materials and Methods:

The electronic database PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge along with a complimentary manual search of all orthodontic journals till the first week of December 2019 was searched. English language study performed on humans, randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials, comparing the effect of fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish on WSL was included in the review. Quality assessment of included studies was performed.

Clinical Significance:

The need for an adjunct oral hygiene aid to reduce the incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients is necessary. The use of these varnishes will aid in the same and thus make the adverse effects of fixed orthodontic treatment negligible.

Review of Literature:

Enamel demineralization is a significant risk associated with orthodontic treatment when oral hygiene is poor. Prevention of demineralization during orthodontic treatment is one of the greatest challenges faced by clinicians despite modern advances in caries prevention. The development of White Spot Lesions (WSLs) is attributed to prolonged plaque accumulation around the brackets.


The search identified a total of 3 studies that were included in this review. One study had Low risk of bias and the remaining 2 studies had moderate overall risk. Results showed that there was a reduction in the incidence of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients after application of chlorhexidine and Fluoride varnish.


Low level evidence is available to conclude that the use of chlorhexidine varnishes and fluoride varnishes reduces the prevalence of white spot lesions in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Due to its limitations, the results of this systematic review should be handled with caution and further well-planned Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) are needed to provide a discrete conclusion.

Keywords: Cervitec varnish, Fluoride varnish, White spot lesions, Orthodontic treatment, Chlorhexidine, Plaque.
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