A Comparative Study of Surface Hardness between Two Bioceramic Materials in an Experimental Apexification Model under Wet and Dry Conditions

Maria Priya Paul1, Swathi Amin1, Arun Mayya1, *, Rajaram Naik1, Shreemathi S. Mayya2
1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, AJ Institute of Dental Sciences, Kuntikana, Mangalore
2 Department of Data Science, Prasanna School of Public Health, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

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© 2020 Paul et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, AJ Institute of Dental Sciences, Kuntikana, Mangalore; Tel: 9742727324; E-mail:



The placement of a wet cotton pellet against Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is often recommended to ensure the completion of its setting reaction.


This study aimed to evaluate the setting behaviour of MTA Angelus and NeoMTA by comparing their hardness after placing them in dry and moist conditions.


A simulated open apex was created on 40 polyvinyl tubes. The apical 4 mm of the tubes was filled with the two materials, NeoMTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc. Bradenton, FL, USA) and MTA Angelus (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) (n=20 per group). Both groups were subdivided into two subgroups based on the dry and wet conditions (n=10 per group). A wet cotton pellet was placed above the two materials in the wet group, and the coronal segment was sealed using Type II Glass ionomer cement (GC corporation Tokyo, Japan). Gutta-percha was placed against the test materials in the dry group with the coronal segment sealed with amalgam. Samples were placed in an oasis soaked in phosphate-buffered saline for seven days in 100% humidity and at 37°C. Microhardness was measured independently at 4 and 2 mm from the apex. Hardness was compared between materials and conditions, applying analysis of variance (a = .05).


The presence of dry or wet conditions had no significant effect on material hardness. MTA Angelus showed significantly higher hardness values compared with NeoMTA Plus.


The moisture of the periapical environment can compensate for the absence of a wet cotton pellet and is adequate for the setting of the materials.

Keywords: Apexification, Microhardness, Mineral trioxide aggregate, Hardness, Analysis of variance, Wet cotton pellet.