Evaluation of the Effect of Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Treatment on Bonding Cements to Zirconia

Abdulelah M. Binmahfooz1, Ghadeer I. Basunbul1, *, Aws S ArRejaie2
1 Faculty of Dentistry - King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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© 2018 Binmahfooz et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address Correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Dentistry - King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Tel: +966555595707; E-mail:



The major difference in the chemical composition of Y-TZP ceramics, as compared with conventional porcelain, led researchers to develop alternative solutions for achieving durable and long term bonding with the zirconia surface.


The study aims to evaluate the effects of glow discharge treatment on the bonding between cement and zirconia.


The zirconia rings and rods were prepared with the Zirconia Y-TZP powder and TZ-3YSB-E (Tosoh-Zirconia) through auto-mix to investigate the glow discharge and thermo-cycling. An orientation Teflon mold was used to centralize each rod into the zirconia ring, and aided as a cementation jig during the cementation procedure.


Cohesive failure (2/3 or more of luting agent remained on the zirconia surface) has been majorly observed with RelyX Ultimate, while adhesion failure (less than 1/3 of the luting agent remained on the zirconia surface) has been primarily observed in Ketac-Cem. Mixed failure was observed among the three specimen including Rely X Unicem 2, Multilink Auto-mix and Ceramir.


The glow discharge surface treatment procedure had a major impact on bond strength to zirconia.

Keywords: Glow discharge plasma, Bonding cement, Zirconia, Cohesive failure, Adhesive failure, Y-TZP ceramics.