Perspectives of Immune Suppression in the Tumor Microenvironment Promoting Oral Malignancy

Nobuo Kondoh1, *, Masako Mizuno-Kamiya2, Eiji Takayama1, Harumi Kawati1, Naoki Umemura1, Yutaka Yamazaki3, Kenji Mitsudo4, Iwai Tohnai4
1 Department of Oral Biochemistry, Division of Oral Structure, Function and Development, Asahi University School of Dentistry, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu, 501-0296, Japan
2 Department of Management and Information Studies, Chemistry Laboratory, Asahi University School of Business Administration, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu501-0296, Japan
3 Department of Oral Health Science, Gerodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8586, Japan
4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan

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© 2018 Kondoh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Biochemistry, Asahi University School of Dentistry, 1851 Hozumi, Mizuho, Gifu, 501-0296, Japan; Tel: +81-058-329-1416; E-mail:



In order to survive, cancers control immune systems and evade immune detection using mediators consisting of immune checkpoint molecules and cellular systems associated with immune suppression.


During the development of cancer and chronic infections, the immune checkpoints and cellular components including regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts are often enhanced as a mechanism of immune subversion and have therefore become very important therapeutic targets.


In this review, we will discuss the complexity of immune-suppressive mechanisms in the tumor milieu of cancers, including oral malignancy.

Keywords: Immune suppression, Tumor Microenvironment (TME), T-Regulatory cell (Treg), Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell (MDSC), Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs), Oral malignancy.