REVIEW ARTICLE


Overview of Calcium Phosphates used in Biomimetic Oral Care



Frederic Meyer1, Bennett T. Amaechi2, Helge-Otto Fabritius3, Joachim Enax1, *
1 Dr. Kurt Wolff GmbH & Co. KG, Research Department, Johanneswerkstr. 34-36, 33611 Bielefeld, Germany
2 Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, 703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA
3 Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Duesseldorf, Germany


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© 2018 Meyer et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to the author at the Dr. Kurt Wolff GmbH and Co. KG, Research Department, Johanneswerkstr. 34-36, 33611 Bielefeld, Germany; Tel: +49 521 8808-6064; Fax: +49 521 8808-626064; E-mail: joachim.enax@drwolffgroup.com


Abstract

Background:

The use of biomimetic agents is an emerging field in modern oral care. Promising biomimetic substances for such applications are calcium phosphates, because their chemical composition is very similar to that of the mineral phase in human teeth, especially of natural enamel. Examples for their application include the remineralization of early caries lesions and repair of small enamel defects.

Objective:

This review provides an interdisciplinary view on calcium phosphates and their applications in biomimetic oral care. The aim of this work is to give an overview of in vivo and in situ studies comparing several calcium phosphates in preventive dentistry that can be used as a knowledge base for the development of innovative alternative oral care concepts.

Methods:

Books, reviews, and original research papers with a focus on in vivo and in situ studies were included. The databases PubMed® and SciFinder® were used for literature search. Calcium phosphates that are frequently utilized in oral care products are covered in this review and were used as search terms alone and together with the following key words: in vivo, in situ, caries, clinical study, and remineralization. From 13,470 studies found, 35 studies complied with the inclusion criteria and were used for this review.

Results:

Published in vivo and in situ studies demonstrate calcium phosphates’ potential in enamel remineralization. However, more studies are needed to further substantiate existing results and to extend and refine the application of calcium phosphates in modern oral care.

Conclusion:

Calcium phosphates represent an innovative biomimetic approach for daily oral care because of their high similarity to natural enamel that will broaden the range of future treatments in preventive dentistry.

Keywords: Enamel, Remineralization, Caries, Erosion, Calcium phosphates, Hydroxyapatite, Amorphous calcium phosphate.