Long-Term Effects of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment on the Oral System in a Pediatric Patient

Saturnino Marco Lupi1, *, Arianna Rodriguez y Baena1, Gabriele Cervino2, Claudia Todaro1, Silvana Rizzo1
1 Department of Clinical, Surgical, Pediatric and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Pavia, P.le Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2 Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences, Morphological and Functional Images, School of Dentistry, University of Messina, Policlinico G. Martino, Via Consolare Valeria, 98100 Messina, Italy

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© 2018 Lupi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical, Surgical, Pediatric and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Saturnino Marco Lupi, P.le Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy; Tel: +39 382516255; E-mail:



Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) in pediatric patients is a serious disease, although, for the subgroup of patients who receive proper treatment, a long-term survival rate above 50% is typical. The cycles of chemo- and radiotherapy used to treat AML can impair dental development.

Case Report:

Herein, we describe the oral condition of a 25-year-old male patient treated for AML with chemo- and radiotherapy from 5 to 7 years of age; his AML has remained in remission for the past 18 years. He had lost only one permanent tooth, but the remaining teeth demonstrated serious deformations and radicular hypoplasia. Two teeth required immediate extraction and subsequent replacement by implant-supported crowns. We found that the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index was not representative of the real oral condition. Here, we report the full case and provide a brief review of the literature.


Antitumor treatment of pediatric leukemia can induce total impairment of dental development and function. These adverse effects may become clinically evident many years after the resolution of cancer, and can be significantly detrimental to the patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia, Dental anomalies, Children teeth, Bone marrow transplantation, Long-term effects, Dental implants.