Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) in pediatric patients is a serious disease, although, for the subgroup of patients who receive proper treatment, a long-term survival rate above 50% is typical. The cycles of chemo- and radiotherapy used to treat AML can impair dental development.

Case Report:

Herein, we describe the oral condition of a 25-year-old male patient treated for AML with chemo- and radiotherapy from 5 to 7 years of age; his AML has remained in remission for the past 18 years. He had lost only one permanent tooth, but the remaining teeth demonstrated serious deformations and radicular hypoplasia. Two teeth required immediate extraction and subsequent replacement by implant-supported crowns. We found that the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index was not representative of the real oral condition. Here, we report the full case and provide a brief review of the literature.


Antitumor treatment of pediatric leukemia can induce total impairment of dental development and function. These adverse effects may become clinically evident many years after the resolution of cancer, and can be significantly detrimental to the patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia, Dental anomalies, Children teeth, Bone marrow transplantation, Long-term effects, Dental implants.
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