Influence of File Motion on Shaping, Apical Debris Extrusion and Dentinal Defects: A Critical Review

Victor Feliz Pedrinha, Juliana Melo da Silva Brandão, Oscar Faciola Pessoa, Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues*
School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pará, Pará, Brazil

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© 2018 Pedrinha et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pará, Augusto Corrêa Street, Guamá, Belém, Pará, Brazil; Tel: (+55) 91-98134-7899; E-mail:


Advances in endodontics have enabled the evolution of file manufacturing processes, improving performance beyond that of conventional files. In the present study, systems manufactured using state of the art methods and possessing special properties related to NiTi alloys (i.e., CM-Wire, M-Wire and R-Phase) were selected. The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analysis of the literature about the relationship between recently introduced NiTi files with different movement kinematics and shaping ability, apical extrusion of debris and dentin defects in root canal preparations. From March 2016 to January 2017, electronic searches were conducted in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases for articles published since January 2010. In vitro studies performed on extracted human teeth and published in English were considered for this review. Based on the inclusion criteria, 71 papers were selected for the analysis of full-text copies. Specific analysis was performed on 45 articles describing the effects of reciprocating, continuous and adaptive movements on the WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, HyFlex CM and Twisted File Adaptive systems. A wide range of testing conditions and methodologies have been used to compare the systems. Due the controversies among the results, the characteristics of the files used, such as their design and alloys, appear to be inconsistent to determine the best approach.

Keywords: Endodontic files, Endodontically treated teeth, Kinematics, Nickel-titanium, Root canal preparation, Root canal therapy.