Immunophenotyping Oral Amyloidosis for the Precise Identification of the Biochemical Forms: A Retrospective Study

Nada Binmadi1, *, Chidan Intapa2, Risa Chaisuparat3, Sara Akeel1, Amal Sindi1, Timothy Meiller4
1 Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Dentistry, Naresuan University, Muang, Phitsanulok, Thailand
3 Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
4 Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Maryland/ Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, MD, USA

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© 2018 Binmadi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80209, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia; Tel: 0505699092; E-mail:



Amyloidosis refers to a group of systemic and localized disorders associated with the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates called amyloids in different parts of the body. Owing to the existence of multiple forms of amyloids with similar tertiary structures, precise identification of their biochemical form is critical for correct therapy.


This retrospective study aimed to determine whether typing of oral amyloid deposits can help diagnose a serious systemic condition in the early phase of the disease


All histopathologically confirmed cases of amyloidosis managed over a 14-year period (January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011) were retrieved for analysis. Two board-certified oral and maxillofacial pathologists reviewed the histopathological findings of amyloidosis on the basis of its classic Congo red staining characteristics. This was followed by immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy samples using a panel of antibodies specific for different forms of amyloidosis.


The most common location of amyloidosis was the tongue, and women were more commonly affected than men. The patient age ranged from 11 to 83 years (average 59.3 years). In patient 9, light-chain and pre-albumin (transthyretin) antibodies were related to arthritis and senile amyloidosis, respectively. The biopsy sample of patient 10, who was reported to have multiple myeloma, was positive for light chains and β2 microglobulin. All other samples exhibited localized (solitary) amyloidosis.


Histological analysis coupled with immunostaining with a panel of specific antibodies might assist in identifying early systemic amyloidosis in patients with localized oral forms of the disease.

Keywords: Amyloidosis, Oral amyloids, Systemic, Localized, Immuno-phenotyping, β-2 microglobulin.