Facial and Orbital Fractures: A Fifteen Years Retrospective Evaluation of North East Sicily Treated Patients



Michele Runci1, Francesco Saverio De Ponte1, Roberto Falzea1, Ennio Bramanti1, Floriana Lauritano1, Gabriele Cervino1, Fausto Famà2, Alessandro Calvo1, Salvatore Crimi1, Silvia Rapisarda1, Marco Cicciù1, *
1 Department of Biomedical, Dental Science and Morphological and Functional Images, Dental School, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
2 Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy


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© 2017 Runci et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biomedical, Dental Science and Morphological and Functional Images, Dental School, University of Messina, via Consolare Valeria, 98100 Me, Italy; Tel: +390902216920; E-mails: acromarco@yahoo.it; mcicciu@unime.it


Abstract

Background:

Orbital fractures are classified as diseases usually related to common midface trauma. It represents the most challenging treatment due to the complex anatomy, physiology, and aesthetic role. A midface trauma involves also the zygomatic complex and the nose, however the orbit fracture seems to be a more frequent disease due to its anatomical features.

Objective:

The purpose of this work is to retrospectively evaluate and record the frequency of the midfacial traumas and orbital fractures observed in the North Eastern Sicily. The results of the present data may be useful for the clinicians in order to recognize the kind of fracture just from the first general visit having a quick diagnosis and management.

Methods:

In the years between 2001 and 2016, about 1200 patients with midfacial trauma and about 100 patients involving the orbital floor have been evaluated. All those patients underwent the surgical fracture reduction and a CT scan follow up control at one month, three months, six months and one year.

Results:

Data showed high percentage of orbital floor, nose and mandibular body and ramus fractures; moreover the most frequent causes of fractures seem to be related to motor vehicle accident, followed by assaults, work and fall.

Conclusion:

The results have highlighted the changing trends in the causes of facial injuries, particularly the increasing incidence of assaults and the falling incidence of motor vehicle accidents in developed countries. The quick diagnosis and management proved fundamental for the successful treatment. Clinicians should be able to recognize the first symptoms in order to avoid possible complications.

Keywords: Midfacial fractures, Orbital fractures, Midface trauma, Hard and soft tissue areas, Road traffic accident (RTA), Craniofacial injuries, Nasoethmoidal.