Comparison of Composition and Anticaries Effect of Galla Chinensis Extracts with Different Isolation Methods

Xuelian Huang1, 2, 3, Meng Deng1, 4, Mingdong Liu5, Lei Cheng1, R.A.M. Exterkate2, Jiyao Li1, Xuedong Zhou1, *, Jacob. M. Ten Cate2
1 State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
2 Department of Cariology, Endodontology, Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3 Division of General Dentistry, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
4 Oral Biology Program, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
5 Department of Analytical Toxicology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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© 2017 Huang et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, West China College of Stomatology, NO.14, Unit 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610041, Tel: +86-28-85501439, Fax: +86-28-85582167; E-mails:;



Galla chinensis water extract (GCE) has been demonstrated to inhibit dental caries by favorably shifting the demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel and inhibiting the biomass and acid formation of dental biofilm. The present study focused on the comparison of composition and anticaries effect of Galla chinensis extracts with different isolation methods, aiming to improve the efficacy of caries prevention.


The composition of water extract (GCE), ethanol extract (eGCE) and commercial tannic acid was compared. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) analysis was used to analyze the main ingredients. In vitro pH-cycling regime and polymicrobial biofilms model were used to assess the ability of different Galla chinensis extracts to inhibit enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation.


All the GCE, eGCE and tannic acid contained a high level of total phenolics. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the main ingredients of GCE were gallic acid (GA), while eGCE mainly contained 4-7 galloylglucopyranoses (GGs) and tannic acid mainly contained 5-10 GGs. Furthermore, eGCE and tannic acid showed a better effect on inhibiting enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation compared to GCE.


Galla chinensis extracts with higher tannin content were suggested to have higher potential to prevent dental caries.

Keywords: Galla chinensis, Gallic acid, Composition, Dental caries, Cariogenic microbiota.