Assessment of the Amount of Calcium Ions Released after the use of Different Chelating Agents and Agitation Protocols

Fábio Luis Miranda Pedro, Laura Maria Amorim Santana Costa, Gilberto Siebert Filho, Orlando Aguirre Guedes, Thiago Machado Pereira, Alvaro Henrique Borges*
Department of Oral Sciences, University of Cuiabá, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil

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© 2017 Pedro et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Oral Sciences, University of Cuiabá, Av. Manoel José de Arruda n. 3100 CEP: 78065-900, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil; Tel: +55 65 3363-1271; Fax: +55 65 3363-1264; E-mails:,



The main goal of endodontic treatment is to achieve cleaning and shaping prior to the filling process.


This study aimed to evaluate, using atomic absorption spectrometry, the release of Calcium ions after the use of different chelating agents and protocols of agitation.


Ninety human canine teeth were randomly assigned to one of nine groups (n=10), as follows: 1) 0.2% Chitosan and manual agitation; 2) 0.2% Chitosan and sonic agitation; 3) 0.2% Chitosan and ultrasonic agitation; 4) 17% EDTA and manual agitation; 5) 17% EDTA and sonic agitation; 6) 17% EDTA and ultrasonic agitation; 7) distilled water and manual agitation; 8) distilled water and sonic agitation; 9) distilled water and ultrasonic agitation. Following instrumentation, all chelating substances remained inside the root canal for 3 min. Then the fluid was collected for the identification and quantification of Calcium ions. The amount of Calcium ions released in each group was compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. Significance was set at 5%.


The groups in which 0.2% Chitosan was used showed the highest concentration of Calcium ions (p<0.05). Concerning the agitation method, ultrasonic agitation showed the greatest values, followed by sonic and manual agitation (all comparisons, p<0.05).


The present findings suggest that, among the combinations here tested, Chitosan associated with ultrasonic agitation yielded the greatest release of Calcium ions.

Keywords: Chelating agents, Chitosan, EDTA, Endodontics, Irrigants, Ultrasonic.