Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis by Means of Linear and Angular Measurements in an Adolescent Persian Population

Vahid Moshkelgosha 1, 2, Sheida Fathinejad 3, Zeinab Pakizeh 2, Mohammad Shamsa 2, Ali Golkari *, 4
1 Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 Orthodontics Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Student's Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Dental Public Health, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

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© Moshkelgosha et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Dentistry, Ghomabad, Shiraz, Iran; Tel: +98 9175607254; Fax: +98 7116270325; E-mail:


Objective : To obtain objective average measurements of the profile and frontal facial soft tissue to be used as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. Methods and Materials : This observational study included 110 females and 130 males high school students aged 16-18 years. None of the subjects had any facial deformities. All of them and their parents gave consent to take part in this study. In each case, two standard photographs of profile and frontal views were taken 27 landmarks were digitized on photographs. The mean, standard deviation, and range for a total of 43 facial indices were calculated digitally by computer software. The Student’s t-test was used to compare males and females. Results : The ratio between the lower and middle facial thirds was one to one, but the height of the upper facial third was proportionally smaller than the other two-thirds in both sexes. Boys had greater nasal length, depth, and prominence than girls with statistically significant differences. Both upper and lower lips were more prominent in girls than in boys. All measurements of the chin showed sexual dimorphism characterized by greater chin height and prominence and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Boys had greater facial dimensions than girls. Mouth width, nasal base width, and intercanthal distance were significantly greater in boys. Conclusion : The labial, nasal, and chin areas showed sexual dimorphism in most of the parameters used in this study. Boys had larger faces, greater facial heights, longer nasal, labial, and chin lengths, and greater nasal, labial, and chin prominence.

Keywords: Aesthetics, face, frontal view, orthodontic photography, orthodontics, profile, soft tissue analysis. .