The True-Positive Rate of a Screening Questionnaire for Temporomandib-ular Disorders

Akira Nishiyama*, Natsuko Otomo, Kaori Tsukagoshi, Shoko Tobe , Koji Kino
Section of Temporomandibular Joint and Oral Function, Department of Comprehensive Patient Care, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

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© Nishiyama et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan; Tel: +81-3-5803-5713; Fax: +81-3-5803-5713; E-mail:



Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) occur at an incidence of 5–12% in the general population. We aimed to investigate the rate of true-positives for a screening questionnaire for TMD (SQ-TMD) and differences in the characteristics between the true-positive and false-negative groups. Materials and


Seventy-six individuals (16 men, 60 women; mean age, 41.1 ± 16.5 years) were selected from pa-tients with TMD who had visited the Temporomandibular Joint Clinic at Tokyo Medical and Dental University. The patients were assessed using a questionnaire that contained items on TMD screening (SQ-TMD); pain intensity (at rest, maximum mouth-opening, and chewing), as assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS); and TMD-related limitations of daily func-tion (LDF-TMD). A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors potentially influencing the true-positive rate.


Of the 76 subjects, 62 (81.6%) were true-positive for the questionnaire based on the SQ-TMD scores. The mean VAS score for maximum mouth-opening and chewing and the mean LDF-TMD score were significantly greater in the true-positive group than those in the false-negative group. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that only the VAS score for chewing was a statistically significant factor (P < 0.05).


The true-positive rate of TMD using SQ-TMD was very high. The results indicate that SQ-TMD can be used to screen TMD in patients with moderate or severe pain and difficulty in living a healthy daily life.

Keywords: Limitations of daily function, pain intensity, sensitivity, true-positive rate, visual analog scale.