In vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Different Root Canal Filling Materials

Gianluca Gambarini1, Luca Testarelli 1, Dina Al-Sudani 2, Gianluca Plotino 1, Nicola M Grande 1, Alessandro Lupi 3, Bruno Giardina 4, Giuseppina Nocca 4, *, Massimo De Luca 1
1 School of Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome – Italy
2 King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Istituto di Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, C.N.R., Rome – Italy
4 Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry Institute, School of Medicine, Catholic University, Rome – Italy

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© Gambarini et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Istituto di Biochimica e Biochimica Clinica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito, 1, 00168 Roma, Italy; Tel: +39-06-30154215; Fax: +39-06-3053598; E-mail:



Aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Real Seal 1 compared to other commercially available endodontic filling materials: Real Seal (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and Thermafil (Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA).

Material and Methods:

Periodontal ligament cells from healthy patients were cultured. The eluate of Real Seal 1TM (RS1), Real Seal (RS) and Thermafil (TF) samples was used for the cells viability tests, both diluted (50%) or undiluted (100%). Incubation of the specimens was performed in culture medium for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h at 37 °C under sterile conditions. The cellular mortality was evaluated by MTT test. Results were statistically analysed and the statistical significance was set at p< 0.05.


None of the studied materials showed toxic effects during the period of observation (0 -72 h) when compared to the control group. Only RS induced a very modest increase in cell mortality (about 3% at both concentrations used, during the first 24 hours), when increasing the incubation time, however, only the lower concentration continued to show modest toxicity.


Results of the present study showed that all tested materials did not exhibit cytotoxic effects when compared to the control group.

Key Words: Cytotoxicity, root canal, filling materials.