Orthodontics is a specialty derived from dental sciences that starts by diagnosing, preventing, intercepting, modifying growth, and treating all dentofacial discrepancies. Medical interventions can cause harm besides their benefits. This review is done to evaluate the most common potential risks that can be caused by orthodontic treatment and detect the most common factor in the treatment that may lead to this hazard. The review was conducted based on PRISMA-S guidelines for literature search strategy for systematic reviews. Despite all the beneficial effects of orthodontic treatment, it also has negative effects on oral and peri-oral structures and social well-being. It is also important to obtain informed consent from patients before the initiation of any orthodontic procedure, especially in cases with a history of trauma or known adverse reactions.
Keywords: Orthodontic, Root resorption, Pain, Periodontal disease, Pulp vitality, TMD.