Neurosensory Assessment of Infraorbital Nerve Injury Following Unilateral Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fracture – A Prospective Study
Raj Lakshmi1, A. Chitra1, Anupam Singh1, Kalyan C Pentapati2, Srikanth Gadicherla1, *
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2022
E-location ID: e187421062206140
Publisher ID: e187421062206140
Article History:Received Date: 19/10/2021
Revision Received Date: 26/10/2021
Acceptance Date: 28/1/2022
Electronic publication date: 24/08/2022
Collection year: 2022
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This study aimed to assess the difference in the recovery pattern of branches of infraorbital nerve paraesthesia after zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture in both surgically and non-surgically managed patients.
Materials & Methods:
A prospective, observational study involving 31 patients with unilateral ZMC fracture - 15 in the surgical group (Group A) and 16 in the non-surgical group (Group B) was evaluated. These patients were assessed at the time of injury, 3-months follow-up, and 6-months follow-up for the sensory function of the infraorbital nerve. The assessment of paraesthesia by cotton wisp test, light touch monofilament test, and the cold thermal test was subjected to intra-group and inter-group correlation by McNemar test and Fischer's exact test. Repeated Measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni test for intra-group correlation and independent sample t-test for inter-group correlation were used for two-point discrimination.
A statistically significant improvement was noted on both 3 and 6 months follow-up in the malar region in group A. Other statistically significant improvements were noted only on 6 months follow-up in the infraorbital region in group A. On the 2-point discrimination test, all the facial regions showed significant improvement in both the groups over 3 months and 6 months of follow-up.
There was a significant improvement in the infraorbital nerve sensory function following ZMC fracture over 6 months; however, the surgical intervention showed no statistical significance. Further, it can also be concluded that the inferior palpebral branch of the infraorbital nerve shows maximum functional disruption resulting in a higher incidence of paraesthesia in the infraorbital and malar region.